Edward jenner essay

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edward jenner essay

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Therefore, in direct answer to the proposed question, the findings of Edward Jenner have aided the progression of medial knowledge and treatment to a great extent.

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His observations had a hypothesis large influence on the oil declaration of smallpox as an eradicated disease in 1977 by the world health Organisation. While it is known now that Jenner was correct in his findings, his inability to provide sufficient evidence to explain the success of his vaccine was a minor hinderance. The main reason for this was a lack of scientific technology. It is inarguable that the progression of such things, like microscopes, aids development of medical understanding. It led to a lack of public support, a crucial factor to the success of such procedures. The fact that the royal Society refused to publish his research both reflected and supported the public view. This slowed progression until such a time that proof could be offered to add reliability. There is no doubt that the findings of Jenner were immensely valuable to long-term medical advancement. However, lack of proof meant that in the short-term, despite saving many lives, public support of the vaccine wavered and general acceptance was slow. Nevertheless, no matter which way you look at it, smallpox is the only human infectious disease to have been completely eradicated from nature to this day.

Nonetheless, the knowledge that he recorded was an important essay step towards proving the link between bacteria and human disease. A combination of improved microscopes and the work of individuals such as Joseph Lister and louis Pasteur meant that Jenners work could be elaborated upon and consequently proven to be true. An increased number of vaccinations were discovered, including those of anthrax and rabies which, in turn, aided in the important medical process of discovering cures for disease. The unearthing of vaccination proved to be highly significant in relation to the progression of medical knowledge and treatment. The existing method of innoculation was undoubtedly successful in reducing the risk of death from smallpox, yet it held many risks. The use of cowpox matter significantly reduced these and was much more successful. In the short-term, jenners vaccination undoubtedly saved many lives. The discoveries which followed, crucially the germ Theory, were aided immensely by the background work provided by jenner and consequently much medical progress has been made. In summary, he was the first immuniser, providing the basis of the science of immunology which has been persued to great effect by others in following years.

edward jenner essay

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There were many reasons for this. Some people had a dislike for anything new. Others were opposed to the lack of evidence supporting the theories. A number of people thought the vaccine to be dangerous as a result of doctors using infected needles or mixing up vaccines. Also, some doctors were unwilling to accept it as they essay stood to lose the money they currently received through innoculating people. Success was also hindered by the fact that vaccination was not free, meaning that those supporting it were not necessarily able to receive the vaccination. Jenners theories were founded based on observation and scientific experimentation. The absence of advanced technology meant that Jenner was unable to identify the reasons as to why his vaccination worked.

In order to prove the given theory, he conducted an experiment in which he took matter from a cowpox sore and inserted it into a boy through two cuts. After slight uneasiness in the following days, the boy was perfectly well. He was then innoculated with smallpox matter, a method which was repeated again several months later, but no disease followed on either occasion. After completing the experiment a total of 23 times, jenner came to the conclusion that cowpox protects the human constitution from the infection of smallpox. Jenner published his findings in An enquiry into the causes and effects of Variola vaccine, known by the name of cowpox in 1798. As a result, he received 30,000 with which to open a vaccination clinic in London. More than 100 leading doctors proclaimed their support by signing a declaration of confidence in his research. Despite apparent success, there was much opposition to vaccinations at first.

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edward jenner essay

Lance Armstrong - wikipedia

Smallpox (also known by the latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a virus spread through coughing, sneezing and physical contact with an infected person. It once proved to be one of the biggest killer diseases, killing an estimated 60 million Europeans in the 18th century alone. In desperation, many infected persons turned to herbal treatments similar to those used by Grace mildmay, a prodominant woman in the line of healing, during the seventeenth century. Innoculation was the first method of prevention in relation to smallpox. The observation of Chinese doctors led them to believe that speading matter from a smallpox scab onto an open cut in the skin protected people from the full severity of the disease. This was based on the fact thst those who had previously experienced a mild form of smallpox were portable more likely to survive later epidemics. Potential for both preventing smallpox and making money was quickly exploited and innoculations were caried out in mass numbers during epidemics.

Although there was some success, innoculation was not without risk, as was brought to the attention of Edward Jenner when many refused to receive. Death was a potential outcome, as was the possibility of treated patients becoming carriers and consequantly spreading the disease to those with whom they came into contact. Local farmers told Jenner that they did not need the innoculation. This was because they believed that after having previously contracted cowpox, a significantly milder disease, you were less likely to catch smallpox. Jenner enbraced the idea of using cowpox as a much safer method of prevention.

25 In 1994, he again won the Thrift Drug Classic and came second in the tour dupont in the United States. His successes in Europe occurred when he placed second in liègeBastogneliège and the Clásica de san Sebastián, where just two years before, he had finished in last place as his first all-pro event in Europe. He won the Clásica de san Sebastián in 1995, followed by an overall victory in the penultimate tour dupont and a handful of stage victories in Europe, including the stage to limoges in the tour de France, three days after the death of his teammate. 26 After winning the stage, armstrong pointed to the sky in honor of Casartelli. 27 Armstrong's successes were much the same in 1996.


He became the first American to win the la flèche wallonne and again won the tour dupont. However, he was able to compete for only five days in the tour de France. In the 1996 Olympic Games, he finished 6th in the time trial and 12th in the road race. 28 In August 1996 following the leeds Classic, armstrong signed a 2-year, 2m deal with the French Cofidis Cycling team. Joining him in signing contracts with the French team were teammates Frankie andreu and laurent Madouas. Two months later, in October 1996, he was diagnosed with advanced testicular cancer. Cancer diagnosis, treatment and recovery On October 2, 1996, at age 25, Armstrong was diagnosed with stage three (advanced) testicular cancer ( embryonal carcinoma ). 29 The cancer had spread to his brain, lungs and abdomen. 30 he visited urologist Jim reeves in Austin, texas for diagnosis of his symptoms, including coughing up blood and a swollen testicle.

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1988 Tri-fed/Texas Tri-fed" was the former name of story usa triathlon armstrong was ranked the number-one triathlete in the 19-and-under group; second place was Chann Mcrae, who became a us postal Service cycling teammate and the 2002 uspro national champion. Armstrong's total points in 1987 as an amateur were better than those of five professionals ranked higher than he was that year. At 16, lance Armstrong became a professional triathlete and became national sprint-course triathlon champion in 19t 18 and 19, respectively. 24 Motorola: 199296 In 1992 Armstrong turned professional with the motorola cycling team, the successor of 7-Eleven team. In 1993, Armstrong won 10 one-day events and stage races, but his breakthrough victory was the world road Race Championship held in Norway. Before his World Championships win, he took his first win at the tour de France, in the stage from Châlons-sur-Marne to verdun. He was 97th in the general classification when he retired after stage. He collected the Thrift Drug proper Triple Crown of Cycling: the Thrift Drug Classic in Pittsburgh, the k-mart West Virginia classic, and the coreStates uspro national championship in Philadelphia. He is alleged by another cyclist competing in the coreStates road Race to have bribed that cyclist so that he would not compete with Armstrong for the win.

edward jenner essay

It was alleged that Armstrong violated his contract with the United States Postal Service and committed fraud when he denied using performance-enhancing drugs. Contents Early life Armstrong was born Lance Edward Gunderson on September 18, review 1971, at Methodist Hospital in Plano, texas, north of Dallas 20 to linda gayle (née mooneyham a secretary, and Eddie charles Gunderson, a route manager for The dallas Morning News. His great-grandfather was the son of Norwegian immigrants. 21 he was named after Lance rentzel, a dallas Cowboys wide receiver. His parents divorced in 1973 when Lance was two. The next year, his mother married Terry keith Armstrong, a wholesale salesman, who adopted Lance that year. Eddie gunderson died in 2012. 22 Career Early career At the age of 12, Armstrong started his sporting career as a swimmer at the city of Plano Swim Club and finished fourth in Texas state 1,500-meter freestyle. He stopped swimming-only races after seeing a poster for a junior triathlon, called the Iron Kids Triathlon, which he won at age.

named him as the ringleader of "the most sophisticated, professionalized and successful doping program that sport has ever seen." 6 Armstrong. 7 As a result, he was stripped of all of his achievements from August 1998 onward, including his seven tour de France titles. He also received a lifetime ban from all sports that follow the world Anti-doping Code —ending his competitive career. 8 The International Cycling Union (UCI) upheld usada's decision 9 and decided that his stripped wins would not be allocated to other riders. N 1 10 Armstrong chose not to appeal the decision to the court of Arbitration for Sport. interview, Armstrong confessed that some of the allegations were true. 13 15 he declined to testify about the full extent of his use of the drugs. 16 In the aftermath of his fall from grace, a cnn article wrote that "The epic downfall of cycling's star, once an idolized icon of millions around the globe, stands out in the history of professional sports." interview with bbc news, armstrong stated that. Government after whistleblower proceedings were commenced by Floyd Landis, a former team member.

In 1996, he was diagnosed with a potentially fatal metastatic testicular cancer. After his recovery, he founded the lance Armstrong foundation (now the. Livestrong foundation ) to assist other cancer survivors. Returning to cycling in 1998, he was a member of the. Us postal/Discovery team between 19, when he won his tour de France titles, as well as a bronze medal in the 2000 Summer Olympics. Armstrong retired from racing at the end of the 2005 tour de France, but returned to competitive cycling with the Astana team in January 2009, finishing third in the 2009 tour de France later listing that year. Between 20, he raced with team Radio shack, the uci proteam he helped found. He retired for a second time in 2011.

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For the tasmanian politician, see, lance Armstrong (politician). Lance Edward Armstrong (born, lance Edward Gunderson 4 on September 18, 1971) is a former American professional road racing cyclist. Armstrong cheated by using banned performance enhancing drugs to write win the 1993 professional world championship, and to win seven consecutive. Tour de France races from 1999 to 2005, using overt deception to evade detection. However, in 2012, all results going back to august 1998, including his seven tour wins, were voided, and he was banned from sanctioned Olympic sports for life, as a result of the discovery of his long-term doping offenses. At age 16, Armstrong began competing as a triathlete and was a national sprint-course triathlon champion in 19In 1992, Armstrong began his career as a professional cyclist with the. He had notable success between 19, including stage 8 of the. Tour de France and the, world Championship in 1993, the, clásica de san Sebastián in 1995, tour dupont in 19, and a handful of stage victories in Europe, including stage tour de France.


edward jenner essay
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This Essay edward Jenner and other 63,000 term papers, college essay examples and free essays are available now. Essay on Information on Edward Jenner.gcse history- medicine Through Time Edward Jenner Edward Jenner (1749-1923) was a country doctor. Edward Jenner the Creator of the vaccine for Smallpox Essay.

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