There are also small religious minorities (such as Irish Jews and ethnic minorities (such as Chinese, indians, and pakistanis who have retained many aspects of cultural identification with their original national cultures. Ireland is in the far west of Europe, in the north Atlantic Ocean, west of the island of Great Britain. The island is 302 miles (486 kilometers) long, north to south, and 174 miles (280 kilometers) at its widest point. The area of the island is 32,599 square miles (84,431 square kilometers of which the republic covers 27, 136 square miles (70,280 square kilometers). The republic has 223 miles (360 kilometers) of land border, all with the United Kingdom, and 898 miles (1,448 kilometers) of coastline. It is separated from its neighboring island of Great Britain to the east by the Irish sea, the north Channel, and saint george's Channel. The climate is temperate maritime, modified by the north Atlantic Current. Ireland winters and cool summers.
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Alternative names, na hÉireanneach; na gaeil, orientation. The republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann in Irish, although commonly referred to as Éire, or Ireland) occupies five-sixths of the island of Ireland, the second largest island of the British Isles. Irish is the common term of reference for the country's citizens, its national culture, and its national language. While Irish national culture is relatively homogeneous make when compared to multinational and multicultural states elsewhere, irish people recognize both some minor and some significant cultural distinctions that are internal to the country and to the island. In 1922 Ireland, which until then had been part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, was politically divided into the Irish Free state (later the republic of Ireland) and Northern Ireland, which continued as part of the renamed United Kingdom of Great. Northern Ireland occupies the remaining sixth of the island. Almost eighty years of separation have resulted in diverging patterns of national cultural development between these two neighbors, as seen in language and dialect, religion, government and politics, sport, music, and business culture. Nevertheless, the largest minority population in Northern Ireland (approximately 42 percent of the total population.66 million) consider themselves to be nationally and ethnically Irish, and they point to the similarities between their national culture and that of the republic as one reason why. The majority population in Northern Ireland, who plan consider themselves to be nationally British, and who identify with the political communities of Unionism and loyalism, do not seek unification with Ireland, but rather wish to maintain their traditional ties to Britain. Within the republic, cultural distinctions are recognized between urban and rural areas (especially between the capital city dublin and the rest of the country and between regional cultures, which are most often discussed in terms of the west, the south, the midlands, and the north. While the overwhelming majority of Irish people consider themselves to be ethnically Irish, some Irish nationals see themselves as Irish of British descent, a group sometimes referred to as the "Anglo-Irish" or "West Britons." Another important cultural minority are Irish "Travellers who have historically been.
Maggor told masters the, cornell Sun : 'i do not tell my students what to wear, nor do i define for them what constitutes appropriate dress. 'i ask them to reflect for themselves and make their own decisions.'. Following the viral reaction to Chai's Facebook post, 11 of the 14 students in the class issued a joint statement saying her comments didn't accurately reflect what happened in the room. The students said that while maggor's comment had an 'error in phrasing' the main point was to note 'the importance of professionalism in certain public speaking situations'. They said the professor apologized repeatedly for her initial word choice and agreed that the 'notion of 'short shorts' on women carry a lot of cultural and political baggage'. The only people not to sign the joint letter was Chai, the international student and another student who was absent on that day. Letitia chai said it was a demonstration against her Acting in Public professor Rebekah Maggor.
'She said I was making a statement by wearing my outfit. I told her that I sure as hell wouldn't change my statement to make her or anyone else feel more comfortable.'. Chai said a male international student in the class then agreed with the professor and she decided to leave the room. She said her professor later came out of the room and asked her what her mother would think of her clothing. The ivy league student removed her clothes in front of teachers and students on Saturday during her honor listing thesis favorite presentation. She said it was in a bid to fight 'oppressive beliefs' after claiming her professor questioned the shorts she was wearing. It was a demonstration against her Acting in Public professor Rebekah Maggor, who Chai claims told her earlier in the week that her shorts were too short. Chai said she responded: 'my mom is a feminist, gender and sexuality studies professor. She's fine with my shorts.'.
Professional doctorates edit Admind - doctor of Administration 7 amusd - doctor of Musical Arts 7 ClinPsyd - doctor of Clinical Psychology 7 dahp - doctor of Advanced healthcare Practice 11 dap - doctor of Academic Practice 7 DAppEdPsy - doctor of Applied Educational Psychology. A senior at Cornell University has stripped down to her underwear to present her thesis in a bid to fight 'oppressive beliefs' after claiming her professor questioned the shorts she was wearing. Letitia chai removed her clothes in front of teachers and students on Saturday during her honor thesis presentation at the ivy league school. It was a demonstration against her Acting in Public professor Rebekah Maggor, who Chai claims told her earlier in the week that her shorts were too short during a trial run of her presentation. Cornell University senior Letitia chai removed her clothes in front of teachers and students on Saturday during her honor thesis presentation at the ivy league school. Chai penned a facebook post following the incident last Wednesday, saying she was wearing a blue button down and cutoff jean shorts when her professor questioned her clothing. 'The first thing that the professor said to me was "is that really what you would wear? 'She, a white woman, continued: "Your shorts are too short". 'The professor proceeded to tell me, in front of my whole class, that I was inviting the male gaze away from the content of my presentation and onto my body.
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These are, nonetheless, master's level qualifications. Bcl - bachelor of dissertations civil Law (Oxford) 9 19 BPhil - bachelor of Philosophy (Oxford) 9 20 embs - european Master in Business Sciences 21 llm - master of Laws 8 (Master of Law at Cambridge 22 ) llm(Res) Master of Laws (Research). All doctoral degrees include "original research or other advanced scholarship" demonstrating "the creation and interpretation of new knowledge". 31 due to the flexibility of Latin word order, there are two schools in the abbreviation of doctor's degrees. The two ancient universities of England split on this: at Cambridge, d follows the faculty (e.g.
while at Oxford the d precedes the faculty (e.g. Most universities in the uk followed Oxford for the higher doctorates but followed international precedent in using PhD for Doctor of Philosophy and professional doctorates. The Framework for Higher Education qualifications lays down the naming convention that Doctor of Philosophy is reserved for doctorates awarded on the basis of examination by thesis or publication, or by artefact, composition or performance accompanied by written academic commentary. Other doctorates (typically styled professional or specialist doctorates) that have substantial taught elements normally include the field in the name of the degree. 1 Higher doctorates are normally awarded as honorary degrees ( honoris causa but can also be awarded on the basis of a substantial body of published work. DUniv is only ever an honorary degree. Some degrees awarded as higher doctorates by one institution may be awarded as professional doctorates by another (e.g.
6 Some of the following are postgraduate degrees in a few universities, but generally bachelors are undergraduate degrees. Master's level qualifications edit These qualifications sit at level 7 (master's level) of the Framework for Higher Education qualifications and are second cycle qualifications under the bologna Process. 3 Undergraduate-entry degrees edit Undergraduate-entry "Integrated master's" degrees are offered with honours, and so may add (hons) after the degree abbreviation. These are substantive master's degrees integrating undergraduate and master's level study, with the final qualification being at the same level as postgraduate master's. 2 Primary qualifications in medicine, dentistry and veterinary medicine are taken as undergraduate-entry courses and are denominated bachelor's degrees, but are normally offered without honours These are also qualifications at the same level as postgraduate master's degrees, but retain the name of bachelor's for historical. 2 The bachelors of Medicine and Surgery are always taken together as the primary medical qualification in the uk, equivalent to the American.
Note that where there is a similarly titled postgraduate master's degree, the formulation " Master." is used for the undergraduate degree and "Master." for the postgraduate degree (e.g. Where there is no equivalent postgraduate degree, either "in" or "of" is used. Integrated master's degrees edit Primary dental qualifications edit bchd - bachelor of Dental Surgery 5 bdos - bachelor of Dental and Oral Sciences 5 bds - bachelor of Dental Surgery 7 dds - doctor of Dental Surgery Primary medical qualifications edit Primary veterinary qualifications edit. Taught master's degrees may be awarded by an institution with taught degree awarding powers; master's degrees by research (e g MPhil, mres where over half of the student's effort is in original research, require research degree awarding powers. 18 Postgraduate degrees are not normally honours degrees and thus do not add hons. Some degrees may be offered as either integrated master's or postgraduate master's courses at different institutes,. A few postgraduate degrees at Oxford are titled as bachelor's degrees.
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Thus holders of write an MPhil degree may have earned it in any academic discipline. Foundation level qualifications edit These qualifications sit at level 5 (foundation level) of the Framework for Higher Education qualifications and are short cycle (within or linked to the first cycle) qualifications under the bologna Process. 3 see also foundation degree. Fda - foundation of Arts 4 fda - foundation Degree of the Arts 5 fdarts - foundation Degree of the Arts 5 fded - foundation Degree of Education 5 FdEng - foundation of Engineering 4 fdeng - foundation Degree of Engineering 5 fds- foundation Degree. 3 Most British bachelor's degrees are honours degrees and indicated by putting hons after the degree abbreviation. A student achieving a pass grade, below honours standard, may be awarded an "ordinary degree" or a "pass degree" and may not add hons. As noted above, the mas of the ancient universities of Scotland are also at this level and may also add hons aft their acronyms. Both these and bachelor's degrees with honours at Scottish universities are four-year courses at level 10 of the Framework for qualifications of Higher Education Institutes in Scotland. Scottish bachelor's degrees without honours (including non-honours MAs from the ancient universities of Scotland) are three-year course with less specialisation (an Ordinary degree or a general Degree ) at level 9 of the Framework for qualifications of Higher Education Institutes in Scotland.
The bd ( Bachelor of divinity ) remains a higher degree at some universities (e.g. Oxford, cambridge, st Andrews and, until recently, durham) but is an undergraduate degree at most (e.g. London, Edinburgh, Aberdeen and Glasgow). Bachelor's degrees in medicine, dentistry and veterinary science, while undergraduate degrees, are longer courses and are considered to be master's level qualifications in the Framework for Higher Education qualifications and second cycle qualifications under the bologna Process. 2 Bachelor/Master/Doctor of Philosophy edit There is an international (but not universal) custom that certain degrees will be designated '. Examples are the bphil (Bachelor of Philosophy mphil (Master of Philosophy) and PhD or DPhil (Doctor of Philosophy). Most recipients of such degrees have not engaged in a specialised study of academic philosophy - the degree is available for almost the whole range of disciplines. The origins lie in the ancient practice work of regarding all areas of study as elements of 'philosophy' with its Greek meaning, 'friend of wisdom'.
) to address this anomaly and differentiate between the degrees, both master's. The mas from Aberdeen, heriot-Watt, Glasgow, Edinburgh and St Andrews are considered bachelor's level qualifications on the Framework for Higher Education qualifications and first cycle qualifications under the. Bologna Process, while the Oxbridge mas are considered "not academic qualifications" (the actual qualification being the ba). 2, master's level bachelor's degrees edit conversely, some bachelor's degrees in the "higher faculties" at the older universities in the uk (e.g. Those other than arts at Oxford and Cambridge) are postgraduate qualifications (e.g. The bcl and bmus at Oxford). Many have been changed to the corresponding master's degree (e.g. BSc is now MSc at Oxford but only within the last generation.
A list of standard abbreviations for British universities can be found. Universities in the United Kingdom Post-nominal abbreviations. Note that the lists below include historical degrees that may not retainer currently be offered in British universities. Anomalies edit, for historical reasons some universities (the ancient universities of England and Scotland) do not fully adhere to the Framework (particularly with respect to the title of Master of Arts and degrees in medicine, dentistry, and veterinary medicine are titled as bachelor's degrees despite. 2, undergraduate master of Arts degrees edit, the usage in the ancient universities is not consistent with the Framework or the. The ancient universities of England (. Oxford and, cambridge ) grant an ma degree that is not a substantive qualification but reflects the ancient practice of these universities of promoting BAs to mas (and thus full membership of the University) a few years after graduating (see. Master of Arts (Oxbridge and Dublin) ).
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Degree abbreviations are used as an alternative way to specify an academic degree instead of spelling out the title in full, such as in reference books such. Who's Who and on business cards. Many degree titles have more than one possible abbreviation, with the abbreviation used varying between different universities. In the uk it is normal not to punctuate abbreviations for degrees with full stops (e.g. "BSc" rather than ". although this is done at some listing universities. Contents, overview edit, the, frameworks for Higher Education qualifications of uk degree-awarding Bodies lays down five levels of qualification with the title of degree: foundation (not in Scotland ordinary and honours bachelor's (only separate levels in Scotland master's and doctoral. These relate to specific outcome-based level descriptors and are tied to the. 1, it is common to put the name of the awarding institute in brackets after the degree abbreviation,.