The queen's only responsibility within the colony is to lay eggs and she is the mother of all the workers present in the colony. The workers preform all hive maintenance tasks including: tending to the brood (eggs, larvae, and pupae cleaning, foraging, and producing honey. These tasks are divided among the workers by age, a phenomenon called temporal or age-related polyethism. Drones are produced to mate with a queen from another colony, and therefore are only produced during the reproductive season. Life cycle (Back to top) Apis cerana is holometabolous; meaning individuals undergo four distinct life stages (egg, larva, pupa, and adult). Eggs: The queen lays a single egg in each brood cell. Eggs are small, white, and oval in shape ( Fig. Larvae emerge from eggs after three days.
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An adult essays Apis cerana queen (reproductive female) surrounded by workers. Photograph by azman, cc by-sa-3.0. Males of Apis cerana are called drones. Each colony produces significantly fewer drones than they do workers. Drones have large eyes that meet at the top of their head, no stinger, and their abdomen is thick and blunt at the end. This help gives the drones more of a blunt-ended body rather than the pointed, aerodynamic body shape that is seen in the female castes ( Fig. An adult Apis cerana drone (male) on a section of uncapped honey comb. The drone is centered in the image and several adult workers surround the drone. Photograph by niko koeniger, martinLuther-Universität, Institut für biologie, bereich zoologie. Most colonies consist of one queen, thousands of workers, and numerous drones.
2 ) have a corbiculum (pollen basket) on their hind legs to transport pollen. The worker's ovipositor (an organ for egg laying) has been modified into a stinger and adults are yellow and black in color. The abdominal stripes (tomenta) of Apis cerana are more pronounced marriage than those of Apis mellifera, and Apis cerana workers have four abdominal stripes, whereas Apis mellifera workers have three abdominal stripes. Worker body size varies among subpopulations throughout Apis cerana 's geographic distribution. Generally, workers of the southern subspecies of Apis cerana are smaller than Apis mellifera workers. However, workers of northern subspecies of Apis cerana are larger than some of the African subspecies of Apis mellifera. Queens are the reproductive females of the colony and are larger than the workers, with abdomens enlarged to accommodate their developed reproductive organs ( Fig. Most queens are somewhat darker than the workers.
The australian government has begun educational programs to teach the identification of Apis cerana, and destruction of identified wild nests is common practice in essay efforts to cease its spread within the country. However, the success of these programs has been limited and Apis cerana seems to be well established in tropical and subtropical queensland (northeastern Australia). The native distribution of Apis cerana. The introduced distribution of Apis cerana (Papua new guinea, the solomon Islands, and northeastern Australia) is not illustrated in this map. Figure by sémhur Canuckguy, via wikimedia commons. Description (Back to top) The physical characteristics of Apis cerana are very similar to that of Apis mellifera. Apis cerana adults have branched essay (plumose) hairs on their bodies to assist in pollen collection. Their workers (non-reproductive females, fig.
Photograph by Charles Lam via flickr, cc-by-sa-2.0. All honey bee species (members of the genus Apis ) share many morphological, behavioral and physiological characteristics. Here we summarize those characteristics and highlight some of the defining differences between Apis cerana and Apis mellifera. Distribution (Back to top) Apis cerana occurs across south and southeastern Asia up to russia in the north. Its natural distribution extends to japan and stretches as far west as Afghanistan ( Fig. Similar to Apis mellifera, there are many subspecies of Apis cerana. These subspecies tolerate a wide range of temperatures from cold, temperate, to tropical ecosystems. Apis cerana was introduced intentionally into papua new guinea in the late 1970s. Subsequently, apis cerana has continued to expand its range into the solomon Islands and Australia.
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Common name: Asian honey bee (suggested common name) scientific name: Apis cerana, fabricius (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Apidae introduction. Description, life cycle, biology, economic Impact, management, acknowledgements. Selected References (Back to top the Asian honey bee, apis cerana, fabricius fig. 1 occurs in southern Asia. There are eight recognized subspecies. Apis cerana, including, apis cerana cerana and, apis cerana indica.
Both, apis cerana cerana and, apis cerana indica are managed for honey production and crop pollination, similarly to how western honey bees, Apis mellifera,., are used in the United States. Apis cerana is a natural host to two major honey bee pests, varroa destructor and. Nosema ceranae, both of which also infect. Furthermore, apis cerana has expanded beyond it native range peers and there is particular concern about its spread into australia. An adult worker warming (non-reproductive female) of Apis cerana.
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